Adjectives or Adverbs? 形容詞還是副詞?

Key takeaways:

An adjective only modifies nouns (or pronouns):

She is a beautiful girl.
The girl is beautiful.
She is beautiful.

An adverb modifies anything but nouns (or pronouns):

She sings beautifully. (verb + adv.)
She sings incredibly beautifully. (adv. + adv.)
His job is undeniably important. (adv. + adj.)
Jim is standing right behind the tree. (adv. + prep. phrase)
Undeniably, not everyone needs the product. (adv. + sentence)

❌ The girl is beautifully.
❌ She is a beautifully girl.

An adverb is equivalent to a prepositional phrase.

She lives here. = She lives in New York.
I am home. = I am at home.
Smith waited for me downstairs. = Smith waited for me on the lower floor.

A prepositional phrase can be used to modify a noun, but it has to be a post-modifier in this case:

People in New York were not as friendly as I had thought.
The couple on the lower floor had a fight.

Likewise, an adverb can also be used to modify a noun, but it has to be a post-modifier in this case:

 People here were not as friendly as I had thought.
The couple downstairs had a fight.

Sometimes, an adjective and an adverb can be the same word:

The mountain is high (adj). 
We jumped high (adv.).

Some adverbs have two forms, but they do not convey the same meaning:

We jumped high (adv., indicating the vertical distance).
❌ We jumped highly.

People think highly (adv., indicating the degree or level) of the mayor.
❌ People think high of the mayor.

Not every word ending with -ly is an adverb:

In most cases, adjective + ly → adverb:
exact (adj.) → exactly (adv.)
happy (adj.) → happily (adv.)
economic (adj.) → economically (adv.)
economical (adj.) → economically (adv.)

However, noun + ly → adjective / adverb:
friend (noun) → friendly (adj.)
time (noun) → timely (adj.)
hour (noun) → hourly (adj. / adv.)

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